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Sunday, June 1, 2014

Missing Links of Common Ancestor 人,猿共同祖先?



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Origin of Man Theories - How do scientists explain it?

The mainstream origin of man theory states that mankind and apes came from a common ancestor a few million years ago. At that point, an ancient primate went two different genetic directions—today's apes and today's man. Although the theory appears logical, it really has no support in the fossil record. Much of the alleged evidence that filled text books over the last 50 years has now been reclassified or rejected altogether. The missing links are still missing.
Origin of Man Theories – The Missing Links

"Ramapithecus" was widely recognized as a direct ancestor of humans and is now categorized as an extinct type of orangutan. "Piltdown man" was hyped as the missing link in publications for over 40 years until he was found to be a fraud based on a human skull cap and an orangutan's jaw. "Nebraska man" was determined to be a fraud based on a single tooth of a rare type of pig. "Java man" was based on sketchy evidence of a femur, skull cap and three teeth found within a wide area over a one year period. It turns out the bones were found in an area of human remains, and now the femur is considered human and the skull cap from a large ape. "Neandertal man" was traditionally depicted as a stooped ape-man, but it's now accepted that the alleged posture was due to disease and that Neandertal is just a variation of the human kind.

"Australopithecus afarensis," or "Lucy," has been considered a missing link for years. However, studies of the inner ear, skulls and bones have shown that she was merely a pygmy chimpanzee that walked a bit more upright than some other apes. She was not on her way to becoming human. "Homo erectus" has been found throughout the world. He is smaller than the average human of today, with a proportionately smaller head and brain cavity. However, the brain size is within the range of people today and studies of the middle ear have shown that he was just like current Homo sapiens. "Australopithecus africanus" and "Peking man" were presented as ape-men missing links for years, but are now both considered Homo erectus. "Homo habilis" is now generally considered to be comprised of pieces of various other types of creatures, such as Australopithecus and Homo erectus, and is not generally viewed as a valid classification.

Based on the fossil evidence alone, human evolution must be considered a theory in crisis. In addition, the evolutionary hypothesis must deal with many other issues, including the realities of genetics, biochemistry, design mechanics, irreducible complexity, DNA structure, and information systems.
人類的起源-科學家如何解釋呢?

主要的人類起源理論指出,數百萬年前,人類和猿猴來自一個共同的祖先。在某一個時間點上,一個古老的靈長類動物採取了兩個不同的基因遺傳方向,造成了今日的猿猴和今日的人類祖先。雖然理論上似乎還合乎邏輯,在化石記錄中卻真的找不到任何的支持。在過去的50年,充滿之教科書裡,大部分所謂的證據,現已重新被分類或乾脆丟掉。缺少的環節至今仍然找不到。

人類的起源-缺少的環節



“ 臘瑪古猿”"Ramapithecus"曾經被廣泛地認為是人類的直接祖先,現在歸類為一種已滅絕的猩猩類。“闢爾唐人”"Piltdown man"被出版界大肆宣傳為找到的缺失環節,遠超過40年,直到被發現它乃是基於人類頭蓋骨和一隻猩猩的下顎骨的一個騙局。“內布拉斯加人“
"Nebraska man" 被確定是一場騙局,乃是基於一種罕見的豬的單齒。“爪哇猿人”"Java man"是基於在廣泛的區域內且超過一年時間,發現的大腿骨,頭蓋骨和三顆牙齒合起來粗略的拼圖,且是在人類遺骸的一個區域中發現的,而現在,它的大腿骨被認為是屬於人類的,顱骨蓋則來自大猿猴。“尼安德特人”"Neandertal man"傳統上,一直被描繪為一個駝背彎腰的猿人,但現在被認定它的姿勢是由於疾病造成的,而他也只不過是人類的一種。


“阿法南猿”或“露西,” "Australopithecus afarensis," or "Lucy,"多年來,一直被認為是人與猿之間缺少的環節之一環。然而,內耳,頭骨和骨頭的研究,已經顯示,她只是一個侏儒黑猩猩,比其他猿猴行走更挺拔一些吧了。她並不是正在成為人類的人。“直立人”"Homo erectus"已經遍布世界各地。他是比今日一般的人類較小,具有較小的頭部和腦腔。然而,大腦的大小是在人類的正常範圍內,中耳的研究也顯示,他與目前的人類沒有兩樣。“南方古猿非洲種”"Australopithecus africanus" 和“北京人”多年來被列為人與猿之間缺失環節的一環,但現在都被認為是直立人。“能人”"Homo habilis"現在被普遍認為是由多種其他類型的動物拼湊成,如南方古猿和直立人,而通常不能被視為一種確實的分類。


如此,單憑化石的證據,人類的進化,顯然已是一個面臨危機的理論。更何遑進化論的假設仍須面對許多其他的問題的挑戰,包括基因的實況,生物化學,無法簡化的複雜機械設計,DNA結構和資訊系統等種種的問題。



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